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Build an ERC20 Token Contract

In this chapter, we will show you how you can build an ERC20 token contract with ink!.

1. Understanding the ERC20 Standard

2. Creating the ERC20 Template

3. Transferring Tokens

4. Creating Events

5. Supporting Approvals and Transfer From

5. Testing

Learning outcomes

  • Initial token minting
  • Tokens transfer
  • Approvals and third party transfers
  • Emitting runtime events through Substrate

But first, we will go over the ERC20 standard for those of you who are not familiar.

ERC20 Standard

The ERC20 token standard defines the interface for the most popular Ethereum smart contract.

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// ERC Token Standard #20 Interface
// https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/blob/master/EIPS/eip-20.md
// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

contract ERC20Interface {
    // Storage Getters
    function totalSupply() public view returns (uint);
    function balanceOf(address tokenOwner) public view returns (uint balance);
    function allowance(address tokenOwner, address spender) public view returns (uint remaining);

    // Public Functions
    function transfer(address to, uint tokens) public returns (bool success);
    function approve(address spender, uint tokens) public returns (bool success);
    function transferFrom(address from, address to, uint tokens) public returns (bool success);

    // Contract Events
    event Transfer(address indexed from, address indexed to, uint tokens);
    event Approval(address indexed tokenOwner, address indexed spender, uint tokens);
}

In summary, it allows individuals to deploy their own cryptocurrency on top of an existing smart contract platform. There isn't much magic happening in this contract. Users balances are stored in a HashMap, and a set of APIs are built to allow users to transfer tokens they own or allow a third party to transfer some amount of tokens on their behalf. Most importantly, all of this logic is implemented ensuring that funds are not unintentionally created or destroyed, and that a user's funds are protected from malicious actors.

Note that all the public functions return a bool which specifies if the call was successful or not. We will adhere to that specification.

Creating the ERC20 Template

We are going to start another ink! project to build an ERC20 token contract.

Back in your working directory, run:

cargo contract new erc20

Again, we will replace the lib.rs file content with the template provided on the right panel.

You will notice that the template for the ERC20 token is VERY similar to the Incrementer contract. (Coincidence? ¯\(ツ)/¯)

The storage (so far) consists of:

  • total_supply: a storage Value, representing the total supply of tokens in our contract.
  • balances: a storage HashMap, representing the individual balance of each account.

1. ERC20 Deployment

The most basic ERC20 token contract is a fixed supply token. During contract deployment, all the tokens will be automatically given to the contract creator. It is then up to the creator to distribute those tokens to other users as he sees fit.

Of course, this is not the only way to mint and distribute tokens, but the most simple one, and what we will be doing here.

So remember to set the total balance and insert the balance of the Self::env().caller()

2. Your Turn

This chapter should be nothing more than a quick refresher of the content you already learned.

You need to:

  • Set up a constructor function which initializes the two storage items
  • Create getters for both storage items
  • Create a balance_of_or_zero function to handle reading values from the HashMap

Remember to run cargo +nightly test to test your work.

Template

template-code

Solution

template-code-final

Transferring Tokens

So at this point, we have a single user that owns all the tokens for the contract. However, it's not really a useful token unless you can transfer them to other people...

Let's do that!

1. Transfer Functions

The transfer function does exactly what you might expect: it allows the user calling the contract to transfer some funds they own to another user.

You will notice in our template code there is a public function transfer and an internal function transfer_from_to. We have done this because in the future, we will be reusing the logic for a token transfer when we enable third party allowances and spending on-behalf-of.

transfer_from_to()

fn transfer_from_to(&mut self, from: AccountId, to: AccountId, value: Balance) -> bool {
    /* --snip-- */
}

The transfer_from_to function will be built without any authorization checks. Because it is an internal function we fully control when it gets called. However, it will have all logical checks around managing the balances between accounts.

Really we just need to check for one thing: make sure that the from account has enough funds to send to the to account, something likes the following:

if balance_from < value {
    return false
}

Remember that the transfer function and other public functions return a bool to indicate success. If the from account does not have enough balance to satisfy the transfer, we will exit early and return false, not making any changes to the contract state. Our transfer_from_to will simply forward the "success" bool up to the function that calls it.

transfer()

#[ink(message)]
pub fn transfer(&mut self, to: AccountId, value: Balance) -> bool {
    /* --snip-- */
}

Finally, the transfer function will simply call into the transfer_from_to with the from parameter automatically set to the self.env().caller(). This is our "authorization check" since the contract caller is always authorized to move their own funds.

2. Transfer Math

There really is not much to say about the simple math executed within a token transfer.

  1. First we get the current balance of both the from and to account, making sure to use our balance_of_or_zero() getter.
  2. Then we make the logic check mentioned above to ensure the from balance has enough funds to send value.
  3. Finally, we subtract that value from the from balance and add it to the to balance and insert those new values back in.

3. Your Turn

Follow the ACTIONs in the template code to build your transfer function.

Remember to run cargo +nightly test to test your work.

Template

template-code

Solution

template-code-final

Previous Solution

template-code-previous

Creating Events

Recall that contract calls cannot directly return a value to the outside world when submitting a transaction. However, often we will want to indicate to the outside world that something has taken place (e.g. a transaction has occurred or a certain state has been reached). We can alert others that this has occurred using an event.

1. Declaring Events

An event can communicate an arbitrary amount of data, defined in a similar manner as a struct. Events should be declared using the #[ink(event)] attribute.

For example,

#[ink(event)]
pub struct Transfer {
    #[ink(topic)]
    from: Option<AccountId>,
    #[ink(topic)]
    to: Option<AccountId>,
    value: Balance,
}

This Transfer event will contain three pieces of data - a value of type Balance and two Option-wrapped AccountId variables indicating the from and to accounts. For faster access to the event data they can have indexed fields. We can do this by using the #[ink(topic)] attribute tag on that field.

One way of retrieving data from an Option<T> variable is using the .unwrap_or() function. You may recall using this in the my_value_or_zero() and balance_of_or_zero() functions in this project and the Incrementer project.

2. Emitting Events

Now that we have defined what data will be contained within the event and how to declare it, it's time to actually emit some events. We do this by calling self.env().emit_event() and include an event as the sole argument to the method call.

Remember that since the from and to fields are Option<AccountId>, we can't just set them to particular values. Let's assume we want to set an value of 100 for the initial deployer. This value does not come from any other account, and so the from value should be None.

self.env()
    .emit_event(
        Transfer {
            from: None,
            to: Some(self.env().caller()),
            value: 100,
        }
    );

Notice that value does not need a Some(), as the value is not stored in an Option.

We want to emit a Transfer event every time that a transfer takes place. In the ERC-20 template that we have been working on, this occurs in two places: first, during the new call, and second, every time that transfer_from_to is called.

3. Your Turn

Follow the ACTIONs in the template code to emit a Transfer event every time a token transfer occurs.

Remember to run cargo +nightly test to test your work.

Template

template-code

Solution

template-code-final

Previous Solution

template-code-previous

Supporting approval and transfer_from

We are almost there! Our token contract can now transfer funds from user to user and tell the outside world what is going on when this happens. All that is left to do is introduce the approve and transfer_from functions.

1. Third Parity Transfers

This section is all about adding the ability for other accounts to safely spend some amount of your tokens.

The immediate question should be: "Why the heck would I want that?"

Well, one such scenario is to support Decentralized Exchanges. Basically, other smart contracts can allow you to exchange tokens with other users, usually one type of token for another. However, these "bids" do not always execute right away. Maybe you want to get a really good deal for token trade, and will hold out until that trade is met.

Well, rather than giving your tokens directly to the contract (an escrow), you can simply "approve" them to spend some of your tokens on your behalf! This means that during the time while you are waiting for a trade to execute, you can still control and spend your funds if needed. Better yet, you can approve multiple different contracts or users to access your funds, so if one contract offers the best trade, you do not need to pull out funds from the other and move them, a sometimes costly and time consuming process.

So hopefully you can see why a feature like this would be useful, but how can we do it safely?

We use a two step process: Approve and Transfer From.

Approve

Approving another account to spend your funds is the first step in the third party transfer process. A token owner can specify another account and any arbitrary number of tokens it can spend on the owner's behalf. The owner need not have all their funds approved to be spent by others; in the situation where there is not enough funds, the approved account can spend up to the approved amount from the owner's balance.

When an account calls approve multiple times, the approved value simply overwrites any existing value that was approved in the past. By default, the approved value between any two accounts is 0, and a user can always call approve for 0 to revoke access to their funds from another account.

To store approvals in our contract, we need to use a slightly fancy HashMap.

Since each account can have a different amount approved for any other accounts to use, we need to use a tuple as our key which simply points to a balance value. Here is an example of what that would look like:

pub struct Erc20 {
    /// Balances that are spendable by non-owners: (owner, spender) -> allowed
    allowances: ink_storage::collections::HashMap<(AccountId, AccountId), Balance>,
}

Here we have defined the tuple to represent (owner, spender) such that we can look up how much a "spender" can spend from an "owner's" balance using the AccountIds in this tuple. Remember that we will need to again create an allowance_of_or_zero function to help us get the allowance of an account when it is not initialized, and a getter function called allowance to look up the current value for any pair of accounts.

/// Approve the passed AccountId to spend the specified amount of tokens
/// on the behalf of the message's sender.
#[ink(message)]
pub fn approve(&mut self, spender: AccountId, value: Balance) -> bool {/* --snip-- */}

When you call the approve function, you simply insert the value specified into storage. The owner is always the self.env().caller(), ensuring that the function call is always authorized.

Transfer From

Finally, once we have set up an approval for one account to spend on-behalf-of another, we need to create a special transfer_from function which enables an approved user to transfer those funds.

As mentioned earlier, we will take advantage of the private transfer_from_to function to do the bulk of our transfer logic. All we need to introduce is the authorization logic again.

So what does it mean to be authorized to call this function?

  1. The self.env().caller() must have some allowance to spend funds from the from account.
  2. The allowance must not be less than the value trying to be transferred.

In code, that can easily be represented like so:

let allowance = self.allowance_of_or_zero(&from, &self.env().caller());
if allowance < value {
    return false
}
/* --snip-- */
true

Again, we exit early and return false if our authorization does not pass.

If everything looks good though, we simply insert the updated allowance into the allowance HashMap (let new_allowance = allowance - value), and call the transfer_from_to between the specified from and to accounts.

2. Be Careful!

If you glaze over the logic of this function too quickly, you may introduce a bug into your smart contract. Remember when calling transfer_from, the self.env().caller() and the from account is used to look up the current allowance, but the transfer_from function is called between the from and to account specified.

There are three account variables in play whenever transfer_from is called, and you need to make sure to use them correctly! Hopefully our test will catch any mistake you make.

3. Your Turn!

You are almost there! This is the last piece of the ERC20 token contract.

Follow the ACTIONs in the contract template to finish your ERC20 implementation.

Remember to run cargo +nightly test to test your work.

Template

template-code

Solution

template-code-final

Previous Solution

template-code-previous

Testing Our Contract

Now let's conclude our ERC20 token implementation by walking through some test cases we have put forward when you are filling in the code in the previous sections. In fact if you have been following along on the coding exercise and running cargo +nightly test at the end to make sure the output are okay, you have been running the test cases all along.

1. Motivation

In software engineering practice, it is true that writing automatic test cases cannot be emphasized enough. There are many type of tests one can write and here we are focusing on writing Unit Tests. This means we as developers know the code logic (versus testing assuming not knowing the logic, a.k.a. black-box testing) and we write test cases to verify a function perform as we expected by giving it certain inputs and verifying it is returning the result we expect. Along the way we also test for edge cases, e.g. how it would handle empty value, or value that is out of its expected bound, and test for certain error handling mechanism is executed or error message is returned.

The benefit of having unit tests written are so that once our program get big or during future code refactoring, we can run these tests and if we see them pass, we have the confident that our main program still works.

2. Unit Test Structure

Now let's get to walking through some test cases for smart contract. They can be seen at the bottom section of the code on the right panel.

#[cfg(test)]
mod tests {
    use super::*;
    use ink_lang as ink;
    // snip...
}

#[cfg(test)] is specified so the code section immediately below it is run only when cargo test is executed but not in the normally-executed cargo run. We shorthand all code logic defined above with use super::*, and alias ink_lang as ink.

The first test case is just:

#[ink::test]
fn new_works() {
    let contract = Erc20::new(777);
    assert_eq!(contract.total_supply(), 777);
}

Each test case is a normal function definition returning nothing prepended by the #[ink::test] attribute macro. Inside the function, we setup for certain conditions and then assert for certain results. If the assert statement fail, it will panic and the test will abort with error message.

In the above test case, we just define a new contract with 777 as the total supply, and verify the total supply is indeed 777.

Now, let's walk through a more complex one, the last test case.

#[ink::test]
fn transfer_from_works() {
  let mut contract = Erc20::new(100);
  assert_eq!(contract.balance_of(AccountId::from([0x1; 32])), 100);
  contract.approve(AccountId::from([0x1; 32]), 20);
  contract.transfer_from(AccountId::from([0x1; 32]), AccountId::from([0x0; 32]), 10);
  assert_eq!(contract.balance_of(AccountId::from([0x0; 32])), 10);
}

We first define a contract with 100 total supply. By default in testing, the account calling for all contract code is 0x00000001. So here we assert that the contract creator has all the total supply at the beginning.

Then we approve 0x00000001 to have an allowance of 20 to transfer his own fund.

Note: Notice this line is called with account 0x00000001, so it may look silly that 0x00000001 has to approve himself to use his own fund. In fact if he call transfer() directly, he can still transfer fund to others. But with transfer_from() we know that approve() has the logic to set the allowance amount so 0x00000001 can call transfer_from() later and succeed.

Afterward, we make a transfer_from() call, and ensure the destination account has the expected amount.

You could also refer to the API doc on further usage of assert!() and assert_eq!().

Congratulation! You have completed the tutorial and you write your own ERC20 token smart contract using ink! in Substrate.

Further Learning

Template

template-code

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